Myers JB1, Mayer EN1, Lenherr S1; Neurogenic Bladder Research Group (

Transl Androl Urol. 2016 Feb;5(1):145-57. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2223-4683.2015.12.11.

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Neurogenic bladder is a very broad disease definition that encompasses varied disease and injury states affecting the bladder. The majority of patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction do not have concomitant intrinsic sphincteric deficiency (ISD), but when this occurs the challenges of management of urinary incontinence from neurogenic bladder are compounded. There are no guidelines for surgical correction of ISD in adults and most of the literature on treatment of the problem comes from treatment of children with congenital diseases, such as myelomeningocele. Our goal, in this review, is to present some of the common surgical options for ISD [including artificial urinary sphincters, bladder slings, bladder neck reconstruction (BNR) and urethral bulking agents] and the evidence underlying these treatments in adults with neurogenic bladder.