Bassett MR, Santiago-Lastra Y, Stoffel JT, Goldfarb R, Elliott SP, Pate SC, Broghammer JA, Gaither T, Breyer BN, Vanni AJ, Voelzke BB, Erickson BA, McClung CD, Presson AP, Tward JD, Myers JB; Neurogenic Bladder Research Group, and the Trauma and Urologic

J Urol. 2016 Nov 1. pii: S0022-5347(16)31635-4.

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Abstract

PURPOSE:

We evaluated the short and long-term surgical outcomes of urinary diversion done for urinary adverse events arising from prostate radiation therapy. We hypothesized that patient characteristics are associated with complications after urinary diversion.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We performed a retrospective cohort study of 100 men who underwent urinary diversion (urinary conduit or continent catheterizable pouch) due to urinary adverse events after prostate radiotherapy from 2007 to 2016 from 9 academic centers in the United States. Outcome measurements included predictors of short and long-term complications, and readmission after urinary diversion of patients who had prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy. The data were summarized using descriptive statistics and univariate associations with complications were identified with logistic regression controlling for center.

RESULTS:

Mean patient age was 71 years and median time from radiotherapy to urinary diversion was 8 years. Overall 81 (81%) patients had combined modality therapy (radical prostatectomy plus radiotherapy or various combinations of radiotherapy). Grade 3a or greater Clavien-Dindo complications occurred in 31 (35%) men, including 4 deaths (4.5%). Normal weight men had more short-term complications compared to overweight (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.3-23.1, p=0.02) and obese men (OR 6.3, 95% CI 1.6-31.1, p=0.009). Hospital readmission within 6 weeks of surgery occurred for 35 (38%) men. Surgery was needed to treat long-term complications after urinary diversion in 19 (22%) patients with a median followup of 16.3 months.

CONCLUSIONS:

Urinary diversion after prostate radiotherapy has a considerable short and long-term surgical complication rate. Urinary diversion most often cannot be avoided in these patients but appreciation of the risks allows for informed shared decision making between surgeons and patients.